This edited volume documents discussions held in the context of the 2018 Gulf Research Meeting held by the Gulf Research Center at the University of Cambridge (UK). It starts from the acknowledgment that there is no widely accepted definition and measure of sustainability. All authors however try to capture not only political and economic factors, but also social and cultural influences on economic reform in GCC countries. While authors have argued in total autonomy from each other and some divergent opinions remain, the thrust of the book is to conclude that some GCC economies have made significant progress toward diversification, reducing exclusive reliance on oil with respect to both composition of GDP and exports. This book also investigates a number of pronounced economic sustainability challenges in the Gulf’s oil producers, in terms of not only the threats to fiscal balances, but also the nationalization and privatization of labor markets, environmental pressures on GCC countries and soaring income inequalities within Gulf countries. This edited volume has four parts, discussing various facets of economic sustainability. In a first part, authors provide a holistic discussion of current trends in, and projections about, the sustainability of oil economies in the Gulf. The second part of this edited volume discusses trends in fiscal sustainability, given the quest, and need, of governments in the Gulf to diversify not just the economy, but especially their revenue base. These chapters also tie in fiscal reforms to the goal of Gulf economies to diversify and to adjust labor market structures. The third part addresses labor market policies and labor market reforms. The fourth part discusses strategies of oil economies toward international climate action
Several countries in the Middle East, including the United Arab Emirates and kingdom of Saudi Arabia, are in the process of planning, establishing or expanding their nuclear power programs. The official rationale for investing in nuclear energy differs from one country to another, but broadly speaking, it seems to emerge from the need to improve energy security through reducing the reliance on oil and natural gas to generate electricity and desalinated water. This volume aims to examine the challenges as well as the opportunities associated with the deployment of nuclear power in the region. The key focus areas of this book are the economics of nuclear power; nuclear security and potential for regional cooperation; and technology overview.
Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, accounting for 13% of global oil production. The oil reserves of the Kingdom are the second largest in the world, with a global share of around 16%. Over the last three decades, oil consumption in Saudi Arabia has grown at a CAGR of 5.3%. About 75% of the crude oil produced in Saudi Arabia is exported as crude and refined products, the remaining being consumed locally.
Rapid population growth, increasing urbanization, the vital need for air-conditioning and water desalination, as well as energy-intensive industries are driving the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries to burn growing amounts of their hydrocarbon production, or become importers of natural gas to sustain their fast economic development.
The price war that may be dated to OPEC's conference on November 27, 2014 continued in 2015 and shows no sign of soon leading to a new equilibrium. Crude oil production continues to exceed global demand; stocks are increasing, and, at the time of writing, prices remain on a downward slope.
Extreme fluctuations in oil prices (such as the dramatic fall from mid-2014 into 2015) raise important strategic questions for both importers and exporters. In this volume, specialists from the US, the Middle East, Europe and Asia examine the rapidly evolving dynamic in the energy landscape, including renewable and nuclear power, challenges to producers including the shale revolution, and legal issues. Each chapter provides in-depth analysis and clear policy recommendations. This volume is based on a workshop held at the 5th Gulf Research Meeting organized by the Gulf Research Center Cambridge in summer 2014.
While cooperation on energy issues has been rather tardy among the member countries of the GCC, the fact is that such cooperation on issues related to energy including oil, gas and power generation can potentially be very beneficial. This is true at the global as well as at the regional level. Overall, energy is an area in which cooperation, albeit rewarding, remains very difficult, because low cost and security of supply are viewed as essential components of national development, hence sovereignty. Yet, this paper by Prof. Giacomo Luciani focuses on the areas in which cooperation might take place and underline how beneficial such cooperation might be. It argues that as the GCC states continue to place emphasis on medium- to long-term development and sustainability, the need to loosen some of the sovereignty restrictions by promoting their own energy integration. This is indeed a small price to pay in exchange for much greater benefits
For many decades, the energy industry, particularly oil and gas, has been the mainstay of the GCC countries. Presently, the GCC is home to 81 percent and 25 percent of the world’s oil and gas reserves, respectively. The National Oil Companies (NOCs) have invested in infrastructure development for exploration, production, refining, and distribution of crude oil and natural gas. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques have helped sustain oil production. However, GCC countries such as Kuwait, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Oman have been experiencing severe shortages of conventional natural gas and rely on Qatar to meet their peak summer demands. In the downstream industry, Saudi Arabia and Qatar have focused on developing the petrochemical industry. Other GCC countries have followed similar strategies. This paper outlines the challenges facing the oil and gas industry. A SWOT assessment of the GCC’s oil and gas industry is presented and key recommendations in the form of opportunities for the oil and gas industry are outlined. This is particularly aimed at political decision makers and energy industry executives. In conclusion, the future research prospects stemming from this study are laid out.
Climate change requires coordinated global responses. All nations, including major Gulf Arab oil producers, should implement policies to contain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Yet all realistic scenarios point to the continuing global need for fossil fuels. The countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) thus face a dilemma between continuing development and use of their fossil fuel endowments and increasing reliance on low carbon sources, such as nuclear, solar or wind. This book edited by Giacomo Luciani and Rabbia Ferroukhi explores various facets of the dilemma. The volume is a product of a workshop held the 2012 Gulf Research Meeting organized by the Gulf Research Center, Cambridge.
The oil and gas industry is the backbone of the economy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contributing about 75% to budget revenues, 45% to GDP, and 90% to exports. Saudi Arabia has the second largest oil reserves, largest oil production, and the fifth largest natural gas reserves in the world. Over 72% of the oil produced in the Kingdom is exported. Indeed, the economy of Saudi Arabia is dependent on these non-renewable sources of energy, with a high correlation between Saudi Arabia’s GDP and oil prices.
This paper was presented at the EU-GCC Renewable Energy Policy Experts’ Workshop, an international meeting organized by the Gulf Research Center, EPU-NTUA and Masdar Institute, and is being published by GRC within the framework of the Promoting Deeper EU-GCC Relations project supported by the European Commission. The paper focuses on integrated energy and water management. Electric power is required to produce, treat, distribute, and recycle water while water is required to generate and consume electricity. The goal of this position paper is to identify and motivate opportunities for the operations management and planning of the energy-water nexus. It proceeds in three parts. First, an exposition of the energy-water nexus especially as it applies to the GCC is given. This discussion focuses on the electric power system, the potable water distribution system, and the wastewater distribution system. Then, the paper shifts to opportunities in operations management where recent work in the Laboratory for Intelligent Integrated Networks of Engineering Systems has produced a number of optimization programs to support the deregulated operation of integrated energy-water markets. To highlight the viability of this idea, an energy-water nexus supply side economic dispatch is presented. Finally, the position paper shifts to discuss planning opportunities for the energy-water nexus for the sustainable development of water and energy resources. These include new methods that encourage renewable energy penetration and balance the portfolio of desalination technologies. It also includes integrated strategies for the design of water infrastructure to minimize embedded energy while reusing water of various qualities. The paper concludes with a description of opportunities for EU-GCC collaboration in the integrated energy and water management area.
This paper was presented at the EU-GCC Renewable Energy Policy Experts’ Workshop, an international meeting organized by the Gulf Research Center, EPU-NTUA and Masdar Institute, and is being published by GRC within the framework of the Promoting Deeper EU-GCC Relations project supported by the European Commission. The paper provides an analysis of the existing status of renewable energy in the GCC, specifically highlighting ongoing initiatives, future opportunities, and potential benefits from RE deployment, as well as barriers faced by the different GCC countries. With a third of the world’s oil reserves, patterns of domestic consumption have never been a significant issue in energy planning in the GCC. This, however, is set to change with the emergence of important energy challenges with economic and environmental implications. In particular, the region is experiencing astounding growth in domestic demand fueled by rising populations, economic growth, rapid industrialisation and infrastructure development. The rising demand and the current energy pricing structures are putting pressures on government budgets. The increasing consumption is also resulting in forgone export revenues, and in some countries, threatening the long term sustainability of fossil fuel resources. Finally, the reliance on fossil fuels and the regional consumption patterns, have already led to some of the highest per capita carbon footprints in the world. As a result, the GCC governments are exploring several ways to diversify their energy mix and introduce alternatives. It is in this context that renewable energy is emerging as one of the viable options for energy diversification in GCC.
This paper, which was presented at the EU-GCC Renewable Energy Policy Experts’ Workshop, an international meeting organized by the Gulf Research Center, EPU-NTUA and Masdar Institute, is being published by GRC within the framework of the Promoting Deeper EU-GCC Relations project supported by the European Commission. The paper presents a review of renewable energy applications, potentials and barriers for the GCC region. It also discusses the different challenges facing the integration of renewables into the grid of the GCC countries. Solar energy exhibits the highest potential for the region, followed by wind energy. Analysis of different solar technologies has demonstrated that solar thermal applications such as Concentrated Solar Power should be further researched for desert climates, as most current power plant implementations rely on water consumption for achieving good efficiencies. A comparison between photovoltaic solar technologies shows that the Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) technology is a promising technology for the GCC region because of its high efficiency and suitable operation in a hot climate. The barriers facing widespread application, as well as integration of renewables into the grid, are mainly related to lack of clear policies and regulatory frameworks in most of the GCC countries. The technological barriers are being investigated by many researchers in the region. It is recommended that the integration of renewables into the GCC grid be accompanied by the conversion of the current conventional grid into a smart grid. In order to accomplish this, well defined implementation road-maps for the smart grid and renewables must be developed urgently by each GCC country.
While the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have a prominent global position in terms of their hydrocarbon wealth, their rapid socio-economic development and the soaring pace of energy consumption that feeds such expansion pose real sustainability challenges. The paper explores opportunities and challenges for the region to transition to sustainable energy systems that incorporate clean and renewable energy (RE) technologies. In particular, it examines the readiness of the GCC countries to deploy solar energy solutions in the mid to long term, and looks at different conservation and diversification measures as well as solar energy experimentation undertaken in the region. Giving special attention to the electricity and water sectors, it focuses on the extent to which the GCC countries are seriously pursuing RE opportunities and the obstacles that are preventing faster development and uptake of existing solar technologies and potential solutions. Against this backdrop, it is argued that for a solar energy transition to be successful, it should be tuned to the local socio-economic priorities of the GCC region – centered on competitiveness and economic diversification. The paper tries to come up with specific recommendations on what is needed now and how to pave the way for a long-term solar energy transition that enhances both sustainability and competitiveness of the GCC economies.
The aim of this book is to help identify the potential role that renewable energy sources (RES) can play in the future energy mix of the GCC countries; it looks closely at the major past and present renewable energy initiatives and policies, as well as industrial and research capabilities in the region, with a specific focus on solar and wind energy technologies. In doing so, this study examines the drivers and requirements for the deployment of these energy sources and their possible integration into sectors as different as electricity generation, water desalination or green building. Illustrated by a wealth of practical cases and studies, and aspiring to be used as a reference book, this study aims to help researchers comprehend the overall capabilities and achievements of the GCC countries in the renewable energy field, so that perspectives on the region’s strategic energy issues are objective and sustainable models are encouraged. Even when topics beyond their fields are discussed, researchers from many diverse fields will find the style to be accessible, while information remains detailed and ‘technical’. The book’s multidisciplinary approach gives voice to all stakeholders without judgment or partisanship, leaving the reader free to form his or her own opinion about the challenges that are at stake, and decide the course of action that is required by the current situation.
The report deals with major trends in renewable energies like solar, wind and biofuels, outlines renewable energy initiatives in the Gulf and asks which scenarios could unfold for the GCC countries. Rising domestic energy needs for power generation and desalination, favorable conditions for solar energy production and interest in acquiring technological know-how make a perfect argument for renewable energy in the Gulf. Renewable energies can stretch the lifeline of the GCC’s oil and gas exports, and in some decades from now, they even have the potential to develop into a major pillar of the economy. GCC countries should regard renewables not as unwanted competition to their oil and gas production, but rather as a welcome addition to tight global energy markets.
Anti-American sentiments have risen to levels not seen since the 1980s. These senttiments affect US relations even with traditional allies in the Muslim world, like Turkey, Egypt, and Pakistan, as well as with countries of the EU. The policies of the Bush administration, and esppecially the 2003 invasion of Iraq, are the most obvious cause of the world’s worsening image of the United States. However, Roger Howard’s Iran Oil: The New Middle East Challenge to America suggests that US economic pressures on Iran and those who would do business with it are also an important, albeit more subtle, source of the rising anti-Americanism.
This report presents international energy projections through 2025, prepared by the Energy Information Administration, including outlooks for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. IEO2005 is provided as a service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projections are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. Projections in IEO2005 are displayed according to three basic country groupings. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand and the major macroeconomic assumptions used in deriving the IEO2005 projections. The time frame for historical data begins with 1970 and extends to 2002, providing a 32-year historical view of energy demand, and the projections extend to 2025, providing a 23-year forecast period. High economic growth and low economic growth cases were developed to depict a set of alternative growth paths for the energy forecast. The two cases consider higher and lower growth paths for regional gross domestic product (GDP) than assumed in the reference case. The resulting projections—and the uncertainty associated with international energy projections in general—are discussed in Chapter 1, “World Energy and Economic Outlook.” New to this report are regional projections of end-use energy consumption in the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors. Chapter 2 reviews worldwide forecasts for end-use sector energy consumption. Regional projections for energy consumption by fuel—petroleum, natural gas, and coal—are presented in Chapters 3, 4, and 5, along with reviews of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Chapter 6 discusses the projections for world electricity markets—including nuclear power, hydropower, and other commercial renewable energy resources—and presents forecasts of world installed generating capacity, which are new to this year’s report. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the outlook for global carbon dioxide emissions. With the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol on February 16, 2005, this year’s outlook includes a Kyoto Protocol scenario, which is also presented in Chapter 7.
Abstract: This issue contains articles on the following topics: • Economic Diversification and Knowledge Economy • Gulf Issues a Predominant Theme at G8 Meeting • Looking Ahead: Saudi Arabia’s Economy • The Curse of Oil and the Disintegration of Iraq • Analyzing the Military Posture of US and Iranian Troops in the Gulf Region • Overlooked and Understated: EU-GCC Economic Cooperation
The International Energy Outlook 2006 (IEO 2006) covers international energy projection through 2030, including the word trends in energy demand and consumption in the various residential, commercial, industrial and transportation sectors. The IEO 2006 also discerns the trends of developing non- renewable sources of energy including oil, natural gas and coal, as well as the renewable sources such as the nuclear power, hydropower and solar power. The IEO 2006 also covers the adverse effects on the environment due to the global carbon dioxide emissions. The information on the world energy markets is very important to governments, international agencies, decision makers and researchers. The IEO is prepared by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) and is translated and published in Arabic by the Gulf Research Center
The EU-GCC energy project focuses on emphasizing the importance of the gas sector in the GCC states by establishing a gas network, enhancing the competitiveness of natural gas in the energy markets, and increasing the volume of natural gas exports to the EU through pipelines and LNG projects. This paper introduces a detailed analysis of the areas in which the use of natural gas could be increased, and the economic conditions through which the GCC private sector could be encouraged to depend on natural gas rather than other forms of fuel, especially crude oil and other heavy derivatives of oil. An export pipeline linking the GCC states, especially Qatar, with Europe could achieve some major and important objectives. In fact the European Commission recently prepared a technical study on the possible route, cost and feasibility of this pipeline. This paper deals with these aspects in detail.