The Gulf region has witnessed rapid socio-economic transformation in the last few decades. These changes have resulted in un-precedented pressures on the natural resources and rich terrestrial and marine biodiversity of the region, compounding the stress caused by naturally arid conditions. However, the governments of the Gulf countries have become increasingly conscious of the damage to their natural resources and the remedial measures required to arrest and reverse any adverse trends. This report aims to document the state of the environment and natural resources in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. It covers issues related to land resources and terrestrial biodiversity, the coastal environment, and marine biodiversity, water resources, air quality and solid waste management, and seeks to answer the following questions: - What are the trends in the state of the environment and natural resources? - What are the major natural, social and economic drivers of these trends? - What major initiatives have been taken to address these issues, and how can these be strengthened further?