The integration of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries into the world economy is increasingly multifaceted. Although oil and gas revenues are still of paramount importance, the GCC countries have developed a diversified economic structure with new sectors emerging in the fields of petrochemicals, heavy industries and services. Apart from new import requirements for these industries, the focus of the GCC’s trading relations has moved eastwards. The US only accounts for 10 percent of imports nowadays while the European Union and Asia each roughly contribute one third of overall imports. Furthermore, Asia purchases about two-thirds of GCC energy exports. This has naturally raised questions about potential political realignments although Asia still lags far behind Western markets in terms of cross border investments. Through broad-based strategic analyses and specific sector studies, this edited volume covers various aspects of this ongoing geo-economic positioning, from trade relations, power politics and petrodollar recycling to regional integration, foreign direct investment and labor issues.